Bird Families

Little grebe (Podiceps ruficollis) - description, habitat


Australian grebe (lat. Tachybaptus novaehollandiae) - a bird of the genus (Tachybaptus).


Little studied, apparently, does not differ from that of the little grebe.

Large bird. Length up to 65 cm. Wingspan - 1.2-1.5 meters. Weight 0.8-1.5 kg. Completely painted black with a metallic sheen. Craw feathers are elongated, lanceolate. Young birds are dull black. The colors of the male and female are the same. The tail is wedge-shaped, in contrast to the crow.

Australian grebe

  • absent. The range of the Australian white-headed toadstool almost coincides with the range of the Australian small toadstool. The gray-headed toadstool usually inhabits large
  • black-necked toadstool Australian white-headed toadstool - tadpole, silver toadstool Tachanovsky, western toadstool and Clark's toadstool lead
  • insects. The genus Lesser Grebes includes 6 species: Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis Pallas, 1764 Madagascar Grebe Tachybaptus pelzelnii
  • Malacorhynchus membranaceus Australian Duck - Aythya australis Australian Grebe - Tachybaptus novaehollandiae Gray-headed Grebe - Poliocephalus poliocephalus
  • the New Zealand frugivorous pigeon lives in the forest across the Taramacau River, and the Australian grebe lives in Prison and Grasmere Lakes. At Taramakau and on the edges also
  • double-peeled champignon, common champignon, and yellow-skinned champignon. The pale grebe is found under oak trees in the cities of Canberra and Melbourne, and has caused several
  • Podiceps andinus - Andean grebe Podiceps auritus - Red-necked grebe Podiceps gallardoi Podiceps taczanowskii - Grebe Tachanovsky Podilymbus gigas
  • Order: Passerines Family: Australian robins Order: Passerines Family: Australian whistlers Order: Passerines Family:
  • North Pacific. The Australian pink-eared duck also has a similar beak morphology, which feeds mainly on plankton, as well as mollusks.
  • subantarctic island Macquarie, today administratively belonging to the Australian state of Tasmania. After the discovery of the island in 1810, the parrot had a large
  • the latest Tasmanian emu. The subspecies status and differences from mainland Australian birds are a matter of debate and not always recognized. Wherein
  • shallow water. Sometimes cormorants, gulls, tern toadstools take part in joint hunts. Having caught a fish, the pelican drains water from the throat bag through its beak
  • Jules Dumont - D'Urville. It was sometimes considered a conspecific species with the Australian Coturnix pectoralis, which was then named Coturnix novaezelandiae
  • Norfolk Island began only in the 1940s, and the species became extinct in 1923. Australian ornithologist Gregory Matthews noticed in 1928 that the plumage of a bird from the island
  • bird with variegated plumage. Owls are smaller and darker than the Australian subspecies. However, it is somewhat larger than the New Zealand
  • a close relative of the Eurasian eagle - the dwarf Hieraaetus pennatus and the Australian dwarf eagle Hieraaetus morphnoides and not, as previously assumed
  • Passerines Family: Acrocephalidae Order: Passerines Family: Australian robins Order: Passerines Family: Mohua Order:
  • relatives are the Madagascar ibis eng. Russian, sacred ibis and Australian ibis. In the messages of travelers of the 17th and 18th centuries, a flying
  • The World Conservation Union declared extinct bird species Alaotran grebe that lived in Madagascar. Apple became the world's largest IT company
  • whose works are the main source of information on live birds. Australian amateur bird watcher Gregory Matthews gave other names in the early 1910s
  • For some species, dance can also be an important element, and toadstools are shown performing pas de deux. The rocky cockerels who dances solo are compared
  • Aristotle, who in his records combined them, along with cormorants and toadstools in the genus of the hymenophagous, or waterfowl Steganopoda. Further, in the period
  • individuals feed mainly on birds such as herons, storks, flamingos, pelicans, toadstools, coots and scottish partridges, as well as marine fish, mainly tilapia
  • the first New Zealand shepherds in Germany in 1869. Unlike the Australian Sheep, which first came to Europe at the same time and whose offspring
  • Amanita phalloides

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Podiceps cristatus Great crested grebe, or crested loon.

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Birds choose ponds and shallow lakes with dense lilies as their habitat. They feed mainly on insects, as well as fish and, to a lesser extent, crustaceans.

They breed from August to March. Nesting birds, as a rule, are territorial, but under suitable conditions the nests are built close enough to each other. Sometimes colonies of up to 150 individuals are obtained in this way. The nest is a floating platform of aquatic plants that is usually attached to floating plants, often close to water lilies.

Features of mating behavior

From time to time, males show tough spring rivalry:

  • beat on the water with their paws,
  • splash,
  • slide over the pond with their necks outstretched.

This behavior is followed by attacks. In combat, opponents raise their chest to chest in a vertical position, attack with their paws and strike with their beaks. Females lay four to seven eggs, with striped cubs rolling on the backs of their parents.

Notes (edit)

  1. Madagascar: Per. from English / Resp. ed. ser. V.E.Sokolov. - M: Progress, 1990. - (Golden fund of the biosphere) - 296 p. ISBN 5-01-002049-1
  2. Vinokurov A.A.Rare and endangered animals. Birds: Ref. allowance. - M .: Higher. shk., 1992. - P.79.
  3. Birds of Madagascar
  4. Birds: The Essential Guide to Animals (unknown)
    (unavailable link -
    ). Retrieved April 25, 2010. Archived September 29, 2009.
  5. 12
    Madagascar Grebe
    (unavailable link -
    ). Retrieved April 25, 2010. Archived March 4, 2020.
  6. BirdLife International. (2008). Tachybaptus pelzelnii. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Species characteristics of appearance

Adult small toadstools have a black color on their heads, nape, chest and back. The cheeks, throat and neck are dark reddish brown, the sides are dark brown. A small yellow spot at the base of the beak stands out prominently. The rest of the beak is black with a pale tip. They have large, dark green paws and lobed toes, and a reddish brown iris of the eyes.

Young birds are paler than adults, with dark coloration on the head, back of the head and back, they have yellowish-brown cheeks, the sides of the neck, sides, chest and bottom of the neck are reddish-brown. Darker and lighter patterned markings remain visible on the heads until the first winter molt.


Eggs are usually laid daily, sometimes at two-day intervals, hatching begins with the first or second egg and lasts 20-21 days. Probably, the heat released during the rotting of plant parts additionally warms the eggs. Both parents incubate them, and usually partners replace each other every half hour. Some pairs of small toadstools hatch chicks twice a year. At the same time, it sometimes happens that one partner is already incubating the second clutch, while the other is still raising the growing chicks of the first. Usually chicks are fed by both parents, they transfer food from beak to beak. From the moment the chicks are born, they can swim and in case of danger they rush into the water, and in extreme cases they can even dive. Usually, the first days of life, chicks spend in the nest, but their parents already take them with them on surface walks and diving. Chicks become independent at the age of 30-40 days, and rise on the wing at 44-48 days.

Evolutionary history

| ]

Grebes are a very ancient group of birds. Found fossil remains of the Miocene period, which belong to the genera Miobaptus

... Pliocene finds contain remains of the genus
, as well as the now living genus of toadstools. In the Pleistocene sediments, the remains of species of two modern genera of variegated and western grebes were found.

Since half of all species of grebes live in South America, it is possible that the evolutionary development of this family began here.


  • 1 Description
  • 2 Voice
  • 3 Distribution 3.1 Area
  • 3.2 Habitats
  • 4 Lifestyle
      4.1 Activity
  • 4.2 Nutrition
  • 5 Reproduction
      5.1 Current time
  • 5.2 Hatching chicks
  • 5.3 Chicks
  • 6 People and Toadstools
  • 7 Evolutionary history
  • 8 Taxonomy
      8.1 Systematic position
  • 8.2 Classification
  • 9 Notes
  • 10 Literature
  • 11 References


    Depending on the size and color tones, 9 subspecies of this bird are distinguished:

    • T. r. ruficollis
      - Europe, including the European part of Russia, North Africa.
    • T. r. iraquensis
      - Southeast Iraq, southwest Iran.
    • T. r. capensis
      - Sub-Saharan Africa, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Hindustan east to Myanmar.
    • T. r. poggei
    • T. r. philippensis
    • T. r. cotobato
    • T. r. tricolor
    • T. r. volcanorum
    • T. r. collaris

    External appearance.

    The smallest of the toadstools. Body weight 110-370 g, wing length 90-111 mm. The general coloration of the top is black-brown, the bottom is off-white. The slits and the front of the neck are chestnut-red, the sides of the body are black-brown with light streaks. Flight feathers are brownish; a white mirror is visible on the folded wing. The beak is black with a whitish tip. The eyes are yellow, the eyes are reddish-brown. Tarsus and feet are grayish green. The general coloration in winter plumage is lighter and more diffuse. There is no chestnut-red color on the cheeks and front of the neck. There is no bright yellow-green coloration of the corner of the mouth. However, it differs from other grebes at this time in its ocher-red color.


    On the territory of Central Siberia until the 1970s. this species was not found [1, 2]. First observed nesting in the Koibal steppe of Khakassia in 1974-1975. [3-6]. In May 1981-1982. small grebes were observed on the Yenisei in the Sayano-Shushensky nature reserve. In the early 1990s. small groups of these birds were found in northern Khakassia, in some reservoirs of the Minusinsk steppe and Achinsk forest-steppe [6-8].

    Regular nesting and premigratory aggregations appeared on the lake. Intikol Novoselovsky district. Since the 2000s.this grebe began to nest on lakes Panikha and Salbat, as well as in some places in the floodplains of Seryozha and Chulym. Until 2009, stable bird settlements persisted in a number of reed-overgrown reservoirs of the Nazarovskaya and Chulym-Yeniseiskaya depressions. In 2010-2011. As a result of the deterioration of habitat conditions, there is a fragmentation of nesting sites and a reduction in the range of the species in the region.

    Ecology and biology.

    Inhabits small eutrophic lakes and reservoirs with a slow current, abundantly overgrown with emergent vegetation. In spring arrives at the end of the second decade of May, starts nesting at the end of this month. Nests are built both in open water and in thickets, using the remains of dead aquatic vegetation. In clutch there are more often 4-6 eggs. Both parents feed the chicks.

    The young become independent at the age of 30-40 days, and climb on the wing on the 44-48th day of life. It feeds mainly on adult insects and their larvae, molluscs, amphibian larvae and small fish. Regional characteristics of reproduction and nutrition have not been studied. The area of ​​passage of the species passes through the reservoirs of the Nazarovskaya depression of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. The exact wintering sites have not been established; they are probably located in South Asia.

    Number and limiting factors.

    The total number of the species in Russia, according to some estimates, is 13.0 thousand individuals. No more than 250-300 of these birds live in the Krasnoyarsk Territory. In recent years (2009-2011), there has been a noticeable decrease in their abundance. The places of permanent residence of small toadstools are limited, and their known accumulations in the region are rare. Due to the lack of protection and proper explanatory work among hunters, small toadstools become objects of prey or accidental shooting. Due to the later ascent to the wing, they more often than other waterfowl get under shots in the first days of the opening of the autumn hunting.

    Security measures.

    No special security measures have been taken in the region. Work is underway to form the Salbat Lake regional reserve, which will allow the most significant key habitats with a population of up to 100-130 grebes to be protected, which will undoubtedly contribute to the conservation of the species in the region. The species is listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Khakassia

    Sources of information. Red Data Book of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. 1. Syroechkovsky, Rogacheva, 1980, 2. Rogacheva, 1988, 3. Bezborodov, 1979, 4. Prokofiev, 1987, 5. Prokofiev, 1993, 6. Red Data Book of the Republic of Khakassia, 2004, 7. Red Data Book of Krasnoyarsk Territory, 2000, 8. Red Data Book of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, 2004, 9. Kurochkin, 1982, 10. Krivenko, Vinogradov, 2008.

    Compiled by: IN AND. Emelyanov, A.P. Savchenko. Photo:

    AOF | 03.12.2015 09:10:47

    What do they eat

    The basis of the ration of the crested grebe is fish, and, despite its small size, it prefers not small fish. Strong vision helps this bird very much to fish, giving it the opportunity to see fish even at great depths. Mollusks, plants, algae, frogs and arthropods supplement her diet. For its prey, Grebe is able to dive to a depth of four meters.

    Black-necked toadstool hunting