Bird Families

River monster, red-tailed catfish

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The fish has an elongated body, compressed at the sides. The back of the fish is olive green, the abdomen is gray, the sides are yellow-green. The fish scales have a dark edging, so looking at the fish, it seems that all of it is covered with a fine mesh. A yellow-black stripe runs along the entire body. All fish fins are reddish at their base. The caudal fin is red. Males are slender and have more contrasting coloration. Females are fuller and larger than males. In aquarium conditions, the size of the fish reaches 5-6 cm.

In general, we can say that the Rasbora is a quiet and peaceful fish. Their true beauty is manifested only in a large school of at least 6-8 fish. Most of the time the fish stay in the middle and upper layers of the water.

To keep fish, an aquarium with a volume of 50 liters or more, densely planted with plants, including floating ones with long roots, in which fish like to hide, is enough. Free swimming space must be present. The rassor can be kept in a shared aquarium with the same calm fish as they are. For this reason, they are best kept with tetras, small barbs and other types of rasbor. Under natural conditions, fish like to swim in a weak current, so in the aquarium you need to create an imitation of it using the drain pipe of the water purifier.

Aquarium water must meet the following parameters: temperature 22-26 ° C, hardness dH 4-15 °, acidity pH 6.0-7.0. Good filtration and aeration of water is required, as well as its weekly replacement of at least 1/3 of the water. For better health of the fish, peat must be added to the filter element of the water purifier.

The fish menu should include a variety of live food: bloodworms, daphnia, plankton, small insects, as well as dry food in the form of flakes and granules, but only in combination with something else.

Reproduction

The red-tailed red-tail reaches its sexual maturity by 8-10 months of age.

For spawning, take a spawning aquarium with a volume of 40 liters or more. Be sure to cover the aquarium with a lid, as fish can easily jump out of it during spawning. A separator mesh is laid at its bottom and several bushes of plants with small leaves are planted. Before spawning, fish must be kept separate for 1-2 weeks and fed vigorously several times a day with a variety of foods. During this time, in the aquariums in which the producers are kept, it is necessary to change 1/10 of the volume of water daily.

The eggs are incubated for 24-36 hours, and after 3-4 days the fry begin to swim and feed. At this time, they are fed with live dust, rotifers and ciliates.

The lifespan of the red-tailed rassbora in aquarium conditions is about 4 years.

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Living in nature

The red-tailed catfish lives in South America. Its range extends to Ecuador, Venezuela, Gayana, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia and Brazil. Most often found in large rivers - Amazon, Orinoco, Essequibo. In local dialects, it is called pirarara and kajaro.

Due to its sheer size, this catfish is a desirable trophy for many professional anglers. Although it is argued that the locals do not eat it because of the black color of the meat.

Description

Fractocephalus dark gray on top with scattered black spots. A huge mouth, the same width as the body, the lower part of it is white. On the upper lip there is a pair of mustaches, on the lower lip there are two pairs.

A white stripe runs from the mouth along the body to the tail and on the side it is gray-white. Caudal fin and dorsal apex bright orange.

The eyes are set high on the head, which is typical of a predator.

In an aquarium, a red-tailed catfish grows up to 130 cm, although in nature the maximum recorded size is 180 cm and a weight of 80 kg.

Fractocephalus life span is up to 20 years.

The fish keeps in the bottom layer, when it gets older, it can lie motionless for hours.

To put it bluntly, conditions can be Spartan for the red-tailed catfish. Moderate light, some snags and large rocks for shelter.

But make sure that all this is well secured and will not move, catfish can knock even heavy objects.

The soil can be anything, but they can swallow gravel and damage the delicate gills. The sand is a good choice, but don't expect to find it in the form you would like to see, it will be constantly dug up.

The best choice is a layer of small, smooth stones. Or you can refuse from the soil, it will be much easier to maintain the aquarium.

A powerful external filter is required, the red-tailed catfish produces a lot of waste. It is better to keep all possible devices outside the aquarium, catfish easily destroys thermometers, spray nozzles, etc.

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See also other dictionaries:

red-tailed aimophila - dryžagalvė aimofila statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Aimophila ruficauda angl. stripe headed sparrow vok. Rostschwanzammer, f rus. red-tailed aimophila, f pranc. bruant ligné, m ryšiai: platesnis terminas - aimofilos… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Aimophila ruficauda - dryžagalvė aimofila statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Aimophila ruficauda angl. stripe headed sparrow vok. Rostschwanzammer, f rus. red-tailed aimophila, f pranc. bruant ligné, m ryšiai: platesnis terminas - aimofilos… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Rostschwanzammer - dryžagalvė aimofila statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Aimophila ruficauda angl. stripe headed sparrow vok. Rostschwanzammer, f rus. red-tailed aimophila, f pranc. bruant ligné, m ryšiai: platesnis terminas - aimofilos… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

bruant ligné - dryžagalvė aimofila statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Aimophila ruficauda angl. stripe headed sparrow vok. Rostschwanzammer, f rus. red-tailed aimophila, f pranc. bruant ligné, m ryšiai: platesnis terminas - aimofilos… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

dryžagalvė aimofila - statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Aimophila ruficauda angl. stripe headed sparrow vok. Rostschwanzammer, f rus. red-tailed aimophila, f pranc. bruant ligné, m ryšiai: platesnis terminas - aimofilos… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

stripe-headed sparrow - dryžagalvė aimofila statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Aimophila ruficauda angl. stripe headed sparrow vok. Rostschwanzammer, f rus. red-tailed aimophila, f pranc. bruant ligné, m ryšiai: platesnis terminas - aimofilos… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Area

Rasbora red-tailed in its natural environment lives in Southeast Asia, on the territory of the states of Thailand and Malaysia. It is found mainly in stagnant or little flowing muddy water bodies.

Food

Accepts all types of food for aquarium fish (dry, frozen, live). A varied diet, combining, for example, flakes and granules with bloodworms, daphnia, has a beneficial effect on the general tone of fish and their color.

Behavior and compatibility

Peace-loving schooling species, keeping at least 8-10 individuals in a group. It gets along well with other popular aquarium fish from among the cyprinids, haracins, viviparous, provided that they are comparable in size and have a similar temperament. As neighbors, you can pick up fish originating from the same range, for example, some varieties of Gurami, Danio, Barbus and other Rasbora.

Breeding fish: spawning is paired, portioned. Producers are seated for 7-15 days and fed abundantly with live food. Every day, up to 10% of the water volume is changed. A spawning aquarium with a volume of 30-60 liters, a separator mesh and several bushes of small-leaved plants are placed on the bottom, several bushes of floating plants are placed on the surface. Natural lighting, aeration, filtration (using a low-power sponge filter), the water level is 15-20 cm. Above the spawning box is covered with a cover glass. Water parameters: T 24-27 ° C, dH up to 1.5-3 °, pH 5.5-6.5. Fish are planted in the spawning grounds in the evening, and spawning usually begins in the morning. After spawning, the water level is lowered to 10 cm, and the aquarium itself is darkened.
Sex differences: the male is smaller, slimmer and brighter than the female.
Puberty: occurs at the age of 8-10 months.
Number of caviar: 50-200 eggs.
Incubation period: 18-48 hours.
Offspring: juveniles swim for 3-4 days. In a nursery aquarium, low aeration is required. 40 day old fry are transplanted into a larger aquarium with a water level of up to 30 cm.
Feeding juveniles: starter food - "live dust", rotifer, ciliates, then - nauplii of brine shrimp and cyclops.
Jumping from parents: after spawning, the producers are planted.

Habitat

Red-tailed monkey (Cercopithecus ascanius schmidti) has a wide range and is found in the following countries of the African continent: Uganda, Zaire, Kenya, Zambia, Angola, Central African Republic, Cameroon, Congo, Tanzania, Rwanda. It inhabits a wide variety of habitats: lowland rainforests, gallery and coastal swamp forests, arid acacia forests, and mountain forests.

Appearance

Distinctive features of adults red-tailed monkeys: black face, bluish skin around the eyes, light spot on the nose and white fur on the cheeks. Depending on the subspecies, the color of their nose ranges from white or yellow to almost black. The English name "red-tailed monkey" is associated with the color of the primate's coat, which varies from reddish to chestnut brown at the end of the tail, the color of the coat on the underside is lighter. The red-tailed monkey is characterized by sexual dimorphism: the average weight of the male reaches 4-6 kg, the female - only 2.9 kg, the body length of males ranges from 40 to 60 cm, females - from 32 to 38 cm. The tail length in males is 62-89 cm, in females 53-78 cm.

Lifestyle and social behavior

Red-tailed monkeys are diurnal, arboreal primates, very agile and active. Their main hours of activity are early morning and late evening. On the day, a group of monkeys in search of food walks about 1.4 km. Red-tailed monkeys live in groups of 7-35 individuals, usually a group includes one male and several females. The most optimal average group size is from 11 to 14 individuals. The size of the territory occupied by one group is about 120 hectares, which they protect from the invasion of strangers. In places where food is abundant, several groups of monkeys can gather together, and in large trees they can be together during periods of rest.

As with all primates, communication in this species is complex, involving chemical or olfactory, visual, and tactile components. Visual communication plays an important role in the life and social structure of these monkeys. The visual components make up the communication system in the form of eyebrow lift, facial skin tension, and bouncing. These signals are commonly used to alert potential predators or unwanted impostors. So, gaze is used as a display of threat. In this case, the eyes are directed to the stimulus (for example, another individual), the eyebrows are raised, while the scalp is pulled, the skin on the face is also taut, and the ears are shifted slightly back. At the same time, the existing infra-eye spots, colored differently than the entire face, strongly contrast with the surrounding complexion. Another pose that expresses a threat is gaze with an open mouth, but with closed teeth, while the animal itself can slightly bounce up and down.

Vocal communication of a species is represented by chirps, which serve as communication between group members. This form of communication is mostly used as a social factor among members of each group of monkeys. The most famous vocal communication signal is the trill. These sound signals are usually emitted by young animals when they approach adults. The trill sounds softly, the sound vibrates and gradually fades and decreases in tone. The functional purpose of this challenge is to demonstrate your complete submission and obedience. Red-tailed monkeys greet and identify each other with a special greeting in which two animals approach each other and then touch their noses. Tactile communication in the form of a nose-to-nose greeting usually precedes play or mutual grooming and is an example of a dynamic greeting.

Red-tailed monkeys are commonly found in close association with other primate species, such as red colobuses and mangabee and colobus. Colobuses are able to bite through the hard outer shell of the fruit, and then the red-tailed monkey can then eat the fruit residues, which contain fruit pulp usually inaccessible to them. Red-tailed monkeys are primarily fruit eaters, but they constantly replenish their diet with plant young shoots, flowers, buds, gum secretions and insects. The red-tailed monkey has cheek pouches to hold food in there, keeping their hands free during their travels.

Reproduction

Red-tailed monkeys They usually breed throughout the year, although the peak breeding season is from November to February and the calving season is from April to November. The species is characterized by polygyny, when one male mates with all the females of the group. Typically, an estrus female demonstrates her receptiveness and willingness to mate through demonstrative behavior known as performance.

The duration of pregnancy is on average about 6 months after which one cub is born. Newborn babies usually weigh about 400 g, they have light gray fur and are constantly on the mother, firmly clinging with all four limbs to the wool on her belly, which is responsible for transportation, protection and nutrition. During the first few weeks of life, the female constantly carries the cub on herself. Other single females from the same social group also try to take care of the baby and sometimes conflicts arise between them. The rank of a female in a group usually has a decisive influence on the social status of her matured daughters who remain after reaching puberty in the group. Males, upon reaching sexual maturity, leave the group, forming a separate company, trying over time to replace the dominant males in the groups of females. After the displacement of the dominant male, the new leader tries to kill all the young in the group, thus stimulating the lactating females to enter the estrous period as soon as possible and give birth to their own offspring. Males usually reach sexual maturity at the age of six, while females reproduce as early as four or five years of age.

Threats to existence

Red-tailed monkeys periodically raid orchards, plantations with crops of corn, bananas, millet, beans, pumpkin, pineapple, causing significant damage to the crop. In areas of low productivity, this has become a serious problem for borderline human settlements. Not surprisingly, farmers view monkeys as pests and destroy them wherever they see them.

Natural enemies of monkeys are large birds of prey, wild cats (especially the leopard), sometimes they fall prey to chimpanzees or large snakes. And although there is no exact data on the duration of this species in nature, it is known that in captivity they can live up to 22 years, according to other researchers, up to 30 years. It is obvious that life expectancy in nature is somewhat shorter. Although fate red-tailed monkeys currently does not raise concerns for its fate, but there is concern about their future status, associated with the threat of loss of habitats, especially in connection with deforestation.

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